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Welcome to Kennedy Audio

We are the only internet audio company working on problems such as thermal compressionless Neodymium PA and Backline modified higher power JBL speakers.
Alnico for instruments are supported as well - as with the K series magnets, of course.

As a small midwest group of devotee startup innovators, independent of retail non-compete agreements. We meet the 10% modification rules for no longer produced JBL drop in recone kits and sell worldwide.

In decades of the past, an 'audiophile' customer demanded a complete system that had small power supplies and wide dynamic ranges. Since the society of electronic engineers standardized amplifier output impedance to 1000 ohms or damping factors of 125 8 ohm speaker (1000/8), it became quite a bit easier yet. But some customers need to spend a little more and be sold in better style. The debate about tube damping factors (10-20) versus solid state can not agree on how to do simple math, much less accouter stiffness selection. We believe the ideal damping factor is 1 with .707 as the best Quality factor Q. Damping depends upon cone resonance control, usually about at 80 hertz AND accouter and surround stiffness.

For instance, the negative feedback employed by solid state digital design and foreign owned electronics has become so high that the damping factor, or input to output was 'conveniently refined'. Instead of damping factor of 125, we now often see 'The damping factor' as: Zload/Zsource given as a positive number. For a tube output transformer this would yield a fractional quantity. If any one has shopped for cell phone upscaling / dithering interfaces like Pono, Pure I-20 (Iphone/Ipad), and the X5 FIIO, you already may know that those designers use damping factor of approximately 1.0. It's amazing how history teaches us sceptical thinking and the overall trend away from locally owned retail stores. While the solid state amplifiers in question don't use output transformers per sae, they sometimes use the same device without a primary coil. But it is called a line matching transformer, the grounded black wires are used exactly like an output transformer without the grounded black wire, on a 70 or 25 volt capable line match transformer. Those are probably the better solid state build-outs of the past. Eliminating the transformer almost always results in a damping factor of 100 to 400. But they are ONLY looking at actual resistance, not frequency related impedances. Since 1980, the cell density of the most inexpensive solid state cascaded cathode chip MOSFET has gone from half a million per square inch to between 8 and 12 million cells. This is why the availability of older solid state amplifier repair parts is now very low, and tube amplifiers are enjoying a comeback in some circles. Tubes use high voltage and very low current, while MOSFETs are limited in the voltage tolerance and operate on current changes and voltage across a capacitance as a switch mechanism rather than a charged plate like a vacuum tube anode. Because reducing the output voltage is rarely needed (or possible) there is no output transformer(s). The solid state ideal is to switch the full input transformer power supply voltage to the speakers. This is what began the great debate about higher control of speaker movement using solid state amplifiers in the 1960's. But the source voltage needs exceptional under voltage protection in addition to other protections, hence large power supply transformer capacitors are needed to store enough power that the difference between the rails during output is very small at any time, which can limit the high frequency capability as well, especially in bipolar transistors, which is why MOSFETS are used in audio with mid/high output. The debate began simply because to be safe, large RESISTORS were needed after the output transistors and before the speaker in order to be sure that no one chip locked on because of avalanche effect and destroyed the speaker with direct current. Thus, really good solid state has been more expensive than really good tube power, as a generalization of course. David Hafler was an early innovator in the MOSFET gate/drain configuation with unconventional circuits that used the MOSFETs ability to operate without gate input, which introduces similar risks of DC output to speakers or noise from the power supply. The damping then does not really involve the ratio of 8 ohms to the so called output impedance at all. It gives the buyer a safety factor against burning voice coils. Repairs become expensive as exact matching of hand screened transistors is required to keep the resistors small. Hence, ignore the audio implications of damping factor in solid state amplifiers for sound quality analysis. You will run into the occasional 'modification' expert who will sell the idea that fewer components make an amplifier sound better. If this were just that easy to do, no resistance on the output or feedback on the inputs would be needed. The price for these reductions is high considering the increases in cell density for newer solid state amplifiers. Naturally, if only one transistor was used as in early, slower but more controlled Bipolar transistor amplifiers, adding resistance would dramatically reduce the ability of a MOSFET amp circuit to change between one frequency and the next. This ability is what is implicated by the measurment of slew rate. The slew rate of the MOSFET, although high, would be reduced by the 1000 ohm standard resistance called damping factor, consistant with the voltage squared divided by that extra 1000 ohm resistance. This is why MOSFETs are cascaded, with the delay of the resisance feeding a capacitor or inductor to slice each half wave form into (normally) five pieces. This is Output Edge Control or it's couterpart Dynamic Edge Control. It fights the triangle wave that would distort the fastest changing part of a sine wave, where it crosses the zero centerline. Therefore quoted slew rates are as meaningless as damping factor, unless you know the amplifier class, the DOC or OEC and both damping and slew circuit speed reductions for cascaded transistor cathod MOSFET amplifiers. (Cascodes)

This Output Edge Control requirement also explains, to any interested, why faster transistors keep requiring bigger power supplys. It is to defeat the distortion from the extra speed capability AND still protect the 'load' while driving through more and bigger filtering capacitor networks that bring more precise sources of specific sound types; i.e. bass, mid, treble; square and sine waves and surround.

Most people say they don't want digital audio. The HDMI and digital coax and digital optical are all for the manufacturer. The right to lock up the audio and video signal is then a technological advantage, as is longer distance multiple signal distribution. Yet in the recent past, digital to analog converters have jumped up to the $1000 price level and have become quite sophisticated. Even so, the art of audio, much misunderstood, is now and always has been the art and science of  specification matching. 

When you can't put a new or old component in between any two other components, be suspicious and sceptical. Audio visuals that don't sell higher velocity 'moving air' systems today sell small speakers that do not compare in quality and are experimental in thinking; Boosting bass by active circuits AND/or recorded in SRS to confuse spacial perception by oscillation of stereo images. This gets a big bass sound, especially in non-reflected impedance loads, but also sounds like Equalizer boosted boomy smokestack rumble like toneless noise. THAT is what resulted from the solid state amplifier revolution when damping factors turned out to be much greater than tube output transformers or complex signal crossovers and internal signal coupling bridges that were too low in component count. SPider stiffness became standardized on MUCH more flexible accouter material. We offer soluctions for such problems, read our pro shop listings for more.

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Killer custom high wattage amplifier sound

Kennedyaudio internet sales - sole public notice of the following:

Touching live leads left over right handed with current and voltage drive

circuit technology has a ten times greater chance of death than wrongly

contacting other types of high wattage amplifiers or drive line terminals.

Touching live leads left over right handed with current and voltage drive

circuit technology has a ten times greater chance of death than wrongly

contacting other types of high wattage amplifiers or drive line terminals.


....BUT the AMP is immortal....!!

....BUT the AMP is immortal....!!

Because Hearing a Kennedyaudio Killer Bass Amp Is Believing KAmp Deco - Imposing A Light

Buy Online. Compare Online. Public Address and Instrument Technology.

We Design & sell higher current and 82 volt driven adjustable sensitivity amps & audio. For more safety information
Kennedyaudio amps are supplied with working 48V+ 1000W+transformers

contact: mailto:webmaster@kennedyaudio.com

"Kennedyaudio Location is near Milwuakee, Wi.

So why not compare a quality reliable Kennedyaudio.com
amp with fickle bass killer underpowered tube amplifiers?

And have a great day, month and quarter in your personal business affairs.

go to Kennedy Audio 500 model description page

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